The Impact of Global Events on Forex: A Case Study Approach

The Impact of Global Events on Forex: A Case Study Approach

Foreign exchange (Forex) markets are the very epitome of global financial interconnectedness. The buying and selling of currencies happen around the clock, affected not just by monetary policy and economic data, but also by myriad global events that influence investor sentiment. From political unrest to natural disasters, these events can cause significant fluctuations in currency value.

Understanding how these global occurrences affect Forex markets is crucial for traders, policymakers, and financial analysts alike. This article adopts a case-study approach to examine how significant global events from the past year have impacted the Forex market.

Geopolitical Tensions: The Case of Russia-Ukraine Crisis

In early 2023, geopolitical tensions between Russia and Ukraine escalated, drawing international concern and widespread media attention. The immediate impact on Forex markets was palpable: The Russian Rouble (RUB) weakened considerably against the U.S. Dollar (USD), reflecting diminished investor confidence in Russian assets.

Additionally, the euro (EUR) also felt the heat due to the European Union’s economic ties with both Russia and Ukraine. Given that Europe relies heavily on Russian gas, the EUR/USD pair experienced increased volatility, with the euro dropping in value against the dollar.

Investors often flock to “safe-haven” currencies like the U.S. Dollar and the Swiss Franc (CHF) during times of geopolitical upheaval. In this instance, both the USD and the CHF saw appreciations, reinforcing their roles as global financial safe havens.

Major Policy Changes: Brexit’s Finalisation

Though Brexit technically occurred a couple of years ago, its economic reverberations are still being felt. The finalisation of Brexit trade rules in 2022 brought a sense of closure, but also uncertainty. The British Pound (GBP) experienced fluctuations as businesses and investors grappled with the new regulations affecting trade between the UK and the EU.

A specific impact was seen in the EURGBP currency pair. Whenever there were announcements clarifying trade policies, the British Pound would often strengthen against the euro. Conversely, whenever regulatory bottlenecks were announced, the GBP faced a downturn.

Unexpected Economic Data: U.S. Inflation Rates

2022 saw an unexpected spike in U.S. inflation rates, reaching levels not seen in decades. Such a significant shift in economic data led to a volatile Forex market reaction. The U.S. Dollar, which typically enjoys a positive correlation with rising interest rates, initially strengthened as traders anticipated the Federal Reserve’s response to curb inflation through rate hikes. However, there was also counterbalancing concern that high inflation could harm the U.S. economy, leading to an overall mixed impact on the USD.

Global Pandemic: The Lingering Effects of COVID-19

As of mid-2023, the COVID-19 pandemic is still affecting various aspects of life and economics globally. According to World Health Organization (WHO) data, the number of COVID-19 cases worldwide has exceeded 300 million, with the death toll rising above 5 million. The economic fallout from the pandemic continues to reverberate across the global financial landscape, and its effects on the Forex markets have been especially interesting to observe.

Vaccine Distribution and Currency Strength: The New Zealand Example

New Zealand serves as an exemplary case of effective pandemic management. According to New Zealand’s Ministry of Health, over 90% of the eligible population had been vaccinated as of June 2023. This successful vaccine rollout allowed the economy to reopen earlier and more robustly than many other nations, fuelling optimism among investors.

The New Zealand Dollar (NZD) reflected this positive sentiment. According to data from the Reserve Bank of New Zealand, the NZD strengthened by approximately 6% against the U.S. Dollar between January and June 2023. This could be attributed in part to increased exports and a rebound in tourism, which were possible due to successful vaccination campaigns.

Economic Setbacks and Currency Weakness: The Brazilian Example

Contrastingly, Brazil has struggled with its COVID-19 vaccination rollout. According to Brazil’s Ministry of Health, only about 70% of the eligible population had been vaccinated as of June 2023, considerably lagging behind many other countries. This slow vaccination pace has compounded economic issues, including high unemployment and inflation.

The Brazilian Real (BRL) has weakened substantially as a result. According to data from the Central Bank of Brazil, the BRL depreciated by around 12% against the U.S. Dollar between January and June 2023. Brazil’s economy has faced contractions in sectors like tourism and manufacturing, leading to a lack of investor confidence and capital flight, further exacerbating the depreciation of the Real.

Inconsistent Effects on Major Currencies

The impact of the pandemic on major currencies like the U.S. Dollar (USD), Euro (EUR), and British Pound (GBP) has been less straightforward. Each has had periods of strength and weakness, depending on a variety of factors including vaccine distribution, economic stimulus measures, and public health responses.

For instance, the U.S. experienced inflation spikes in 2022, which many analysts attribute to the significant economic stimulus packages introduced to combat the effects of the pandemic. Despite this, the U.S. Dollar often strengthened due to its ‘safe-haven’ status, especially during periods of uncertainty regarding vaccine distribution in other countries.

Concluding Remarks

The asymmetric impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on global currencies illustrates the complexities of the Forex market, which is influenced by a multitude of factors ranging from public health data to government policy. Understanding these factors in depth can offer traders, analysts, and policymakers invaluable insights into the interwoven dynamics of global health crises and financial markets. As the world gradually moves towards overcoming the pandemic, closely monitoring these relationships will be crucial for anticipating future trends in the Forex markets.


Global events leave indelible marks on the Forex market, often triggering immediate reactions that can be either short-lived or have long-term ramifications. By understanding the nuanced impacts of these events, traders and policymakers can better strategise for future scenarios.

Currency markets are intricately connected to real-world events and will continue to be. As the global landscape shifts, keeping an eye on these influences becomes not just beneficial, but essential for anyone involved in Forex trading or international finance.

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